Floods, one of the greatest environmental disasters, are devastating most of the times. In floods, water inundates the ground causing soil to loosen, which leads to mud slides hazardous for living beings nearby.
The economy is greatly affected after the flood as billions of dollars are spent to rebuild and payback what is lost. Houses, roads, residential, buildings, schools, etc. – the complete infrastructure is left scarred. Thousands are left jobless and homeless.
The primary causes of floods are events like extensive rainfall over a long period and thunderstorms. Heavy rainfall in catchment area leads to flood through the complete course of the river.
Flooding is not just caused by swollen rivers but sea as well. Because of global warming, the temperature rises causing ice caps to melt resulting in increase in water the level of sea. In coastal areas, floods also occur due to high tides and storms, causing destruction of life in the lowlands.
Other than the natural events, there are certain human causes of floods as well:
Deforestation: Due to large scale cutting of trees near the rivers, soil is lost to rivers raising the river bed. This causes overflowing of the rivers.
Poor Farming: Some farming practices cause the soil to be washed into the river easily. People graze too many animals on the land for more money. Less vegetation cover leads to soil wash into the rivers. Over-cultivation is another cause of flooding that causes the soil to become infertile which is easily washed away into the rivers.
Poor Water Management: Poor construction and maintenance of dams is another major human cause of flooding. Their collapse can lead to sudden flooding. Of course there is nothing we can do to control the natural events but there is a lot that we can do on our part to prevent floods and the conditions leading to flooding. Controlling deforestation and following better farming practices will surely help. We can also make efforts to handle the after-flood situations to help the victims return to their normal life.